Since November 2011 he has been Governor of the Bank of Italy, an institution he joined in 1972. He is Chairman of the Joint Governing Board of the Insurance Supervisory Authority (IVASS). He is member of the Governing Council and General Council of the European Central Bank, the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements, the Steering Committee of the Financial Stability Board and the General Board of the European Systemic Risk Board. He participates in the World Bank group as Governor for Italy. From 1997 to 2002 he was Chief Economist and Director of the Economic Department of the OECD in Paris. He graduated from “La Sapienza” University in Rome, subsequently obtaining an MA and PhD in Economics at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of numerous publications.